Galilæana. Studies in Renaissance and Early Modern Science <p><em>Galil</em><em>æ</em><em>ana</em> is an international scientific journal, which publishes blind peer-reviewed research articles in the history of Renaissance and early modern science. The journal focuses on topics relating to the life, scientific work, achievements legacy of Galileo. The journal also welcomes submissions that, while not directly pertaining to Galilean studies, will be of interest to historians engaged in research on science and culture in early modern Europe.</p> <p><em>Galil</em><em>æ</em><em>ana</em> also hosts other forms of contribution, from historical and bibliographical notes to invited papers and essay reviews. The journal is articulated in the following sections: Essays, Texts &amp; Documents, Iconography, Essay Reviews, News, and is enriched with special focuses on specific subjects (please read the related call for papers in the Announcements section of this website).</p> <p>From 2023 <em>Galil</em><em>æ</em><em>ana</em> is no longer printed by Olschki in paper version (2004-2022) and has become an online open-access journal.</p> <p>English is the preferred publication language on <em>Galilæana</em>, along with the Italian language. Submissions in the major European languages may be considered for evaluation as long as the author(s) commits to provide an English translation if the submission is accepted for publication. Submitted papers ought to include an abstract (150 words) in English.</p> <p><em>Galil</em><em>æ</em><em>ana</em> publishes two issues a year. [<em>Galil</em><em>æ</em><em>ana</em>, ISSN 1971-6052; ISSN-L 1825-3903].</p> <p><strong>Indexing</strong></p> <p>The journal is indexed in <a href=";tip=sid&amp;clean=0" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Scopus</a>, the Arts &amp; Humanities Citation Index, and ERIH plus.</p> <p>ANVUR (Agenzia Nazionale di Valutazione del Sistema Universitario e della Ricerca) classification: class A, area 11, sectors C1, C2, C3, C4, C5.</p> Museo Galileo en-US Galilæana. Studies in Renaissance and Early Modern Science 1971-6052 Paolo Rossi’s Legacy <p>--</p> Alessandra Lenzi Copyright (c) 2023 Alessandra Lenzi 2023-11-10 2023-11-10 20 2 219 226 10.57617/gal-20 From chemical atomism to Lutheran orthodoxy <p>As a disciple of Daniel Sennert and an influential professor of medicine at the University of Wittenberg, Johann Sperling embraced his master’s compromise between atomism and peripatetic natural philosophy. This paper discusses the reception of his textbook entitled <em>Synopsis physica</em> (1640), by exploring a student’s notebook (1644-1645) composed at the Lutheran school of Eperjes (Prešov) in the Kingdom of Hungary. Studying this adaptation of Sperling’s textbook can help us understand the emerging need to train ministers and theologians locally, as Western universities became less accessible to Eastern protestants due to the Thirty Years War. In addition to being the first text professing chemical atomism in the Kingdom of Hungary, the manuscript employs natural philosophy and physics as guidelines to discuss scriptural and natural theology as well as religious anthropology. I will argue that both its atomism and its theological inquiry do justice to the capacity of intellectual peripheries to pragmatically handle the knowledge produced in intellectual centres.</p> Gábor Förköli Copyright (c) 2023 Gábor Förköli 2023-11-10 2023-11-10 20 2 115 142 10.57617/gal-18 Antonio Favaro and his correspondents <p>The Museo Galileo has recently published online the vast collection of Antonio Favaro’s manuscripts, documents, and letters (<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Thek@ Favaro</a>). The value of this material for the reconstruction of Favaro’s crucial work – especially in the field of Galilean studies – is absolutely essential. This brief contribution, based on a talk given on September 10, 2021, at the Museo Galileo, outlines the editorial criteria adopted by the Edizione Nazionale of Galileo’s works, which Favaro carried out between 1890 and 1909. The paper also highlights the significance of Favaro’s extraordinary correspondence (over ten thousand letters) for a deeper understanding of the connections and collaborations among European historians of science from the late 19th to the early 20th century.</p> Michele Camerota Copyright (c) 2023 Michele Camerota 2023-11-10 2023-11-10 20 2 143 152 10.57617/gal-29 Antonio Favaro and the Edizione Nazionale of Galileo’s works. Survey of a digital collection <p>Sebastiano Timpanaro Snr., the first director of the Domus Galilaeana in Pisa, recognised that the philological and historical work of Antonio Favaro should be one of the principal concerns of the institute that had been entrusted to him at the beginning of the 1940s. He thus, together with Giovanni Gentile, the institute’s president, took action to ensure that the Domus acquired Favaro’s library and archive which were in the care of Favaro’s son Giuseppe. The delays due to the worsening effects of the war and the unexpected deaths of Timpanaro and Gentile prevented the material, following its acquisition, from being used for a systematic study. Now the <span style="color: #000080;"><u><a href="mailto:Theka@Favoro"><em>Theka@Favaro</em></a></u></span><em>, </em>curated by the Museo Galileo, carries forward this original intention through the use of modern computer technology. It constitutes a multifaceted digital library capable of providing anybody interested with first-hand material together with useful tools for its interpretation and contextualisation.</p> Sara Bonechi Copyright (c) 2023 Sara Bonechi 2023-11-10 2023-11-10 20 2 153 166 10.57617/gal-30 "A radical relationship with the world of nature". Natural History Collecting in the Modern Age <p>Essay review of Giuseppe Olmi, <em>Arte e scienza lungo la via Emilia. Storia naturale, illustrazioni e collezioni nell’età moderna</em>. Florence: Edifir, 2022.</p> Oreste Trabucco Copyright (c) 2023 Oreste Trabucco 2023-11-10 2023-11-10 20 2 191 196 10.57617/gal-34 Vincenzo Viviani: the portrait regained <p>The paper brings to light an original portrait of Vincenzo Viviani found in a private collection in Florence. A head-size canvas (<em>tela da testa</em>) which may be identified with one of the portraits of the mathematician painted by Giusto Suttermans, the official court portraitist of the Medici family. Through the study of the Flemish painter’s life written by Filippo Baldinucci and, especially, thanks to the inscription on the back of the canvas, it seems possible to identify the portrait as that owned by the Senator Giovan Battista Clemente Nelli, then printed by Francesco Allegrini for the <em>Serie di ritratti di uomini illustri con gli elogj dei medesimi</em>, which was released in four folio volumes between 1766 and 1773 by the publisher Giuseppe Allegrini.</p> Federico Tognoni Copyright (c) 2023 Federico Tognoni 2023-11-10 2023-11-10 20 2 169 188 10.57617/gal-7 Il Saggiatore at 400. An early modern controversy and its legacy. Introduction <p>The text is a short introduction to Galilei’s <em>Il Saggiatore</em> and to the essays in the Focus. <em>Il Saggiatore</em> was published in response to a cometary dispute started in 1619 by the publication of the Jesuit Orazio Grassi’s <em>De tribus cometis disputatio</em>. <em>Il Saggiatore</em> challenged Grassi’s methodology and results, as well as prevailing beliefs about comets. The text also served as a cultural platform for Galilei and the Accademia dei Lincei. It ignited debates, prompted a response from Grassi, and led to personal attacks on Galileo, further straining his relations with the Jesuits. The volume also faced accusations of supporting Copernicanism and atomism. Four centuries later, Galileo’s work continues to inspire reflection on its cultural and intellectual significance: this Focus provides multiple viewpoints on the controversies that accompanied Il Saggiatore and its aftermath.</p> Dario Tessicini Copyright (c) 2023 Dario Tessicini 2023-11-10 2023-11-10 20 2 3 6 10.57617/gal-28 Baccio del Bianco and the artistic fortuna of Galileo’s Il Saggiatore <p>This contribution takes into consideration Galileo’s <em>Il Saggiatore</em> as an overlooked source for the arts in Florence during the first part of the seventeenth century. I focus on the Florentine polymath Baccio del Bianco (1604-1657), an artist, engineer, architect, and caricaturist, whose interaction with Galileo was documented by the Florentine biographer Baldinucci. Baccio had also collaborated with Galileo’s friend, the architect and astronomer Giovanni Pieroni. My contribution especially highlights the confluence of artistic and natural philosophical perspectives in the cultural <em>fortuna</em> of Galileo’s treatise. The influence of <em>Il Saggiatore</em> on Baccio del Bianco’s work is exemplified by the decoration of the Camera della Notte e del Dì of Casa Buonarroti, designed in close dialogue with Michelangelo Buonarroti il Giovane. At a closer look, also Baccio’s caricatures are revealed as reflections on (human) nature endowed with the same authority as Galileo’s approach.</p> Eva Struhal Copyright (c) 2023 Eva Struhal 2023-11-10 2023-11-10 20 2 7 32 10.57617/gal-19 The burden of Galileo's controversy: the Jesuit revisiting of the Aristotelian cosmos in Collegio Romano (1618-1677) <p style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: Garamond,serif;">While studying the controversy between Galileo and the Jesuits over the comets of 1618, historians tend to focus on the works that led to the publication of <em>Il Saggiatore</em> in 1623. This article demonstrates that the echoes of this controversy resounded even through the Collegio Romano far beyond the publication of Galileo's masterpiece. Here the professors of philosophy and mathematics had striven for decades to maintain - against Galileo - the Aristotelian principle that the heavens were ontologically superior to the terrestrial region. Even after adhering to Tycho Brahe</span><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: Garamond,serif;">’</span><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: Garamond,serif;"> planetary model as well as to the idea of celestial fluidity, they persisted in arguing that there could be no corruption in the celestial region. Hence, by accepting Tycho</span><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: Garamond,serif;">’</span><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: Garamond,serif;">s astronomical theories the seventeenth-century professors of the Collegio Romano did actually reject the Ptolemaic astronomical framework, but not necessarily the very core of the Aristotelian cosmology. The Collegio Romano remained the champion of philosophical orthodoxy within the Jesuit educational network.</span></p> Luís Miguel Carolino Copyright (c) 2023 Luís Miguel Carolino 2023-11-10 2023-11-10 20 2 33 60 10.57617/gal-14 Assaying Il Saggiatore, with a delicate and precise bibliographical balance <p><em>Il Saggiatore </em>is bibliographically more complex than it might seem at first sight: copies can vary wildly in their parts and materials. The first edition has been repeatedly misdescribed in the book trade, with a fictitious “first issue” claiming chronological and monetary priority. The authors examine both a wide sample of copies and all the available supplementary documentation to establish the most useful way to describe and understand individual copies, and the entire edition, of this book.</p> Nick Wilding Jason W. Dean Copyright (c) 2023 Nick Wilding 2023-11-10 2023-11-10 20 2 61 90 10.57617/gal-16 Galileo, Simon Marius and Dutch nationalism <p>In 1898 the Dutch <em>Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen</em> issued a prize question asking for an evaluation of Galileo’s charge of plagiarism laid by Galileo against Simon Marius concerning the discovery of the satellites of Jupiter. The only submission defended Galileo, and the editor of the Society’s journal, Johannes Bosscha (1831-1911), then took it on himself to defend Marius and attack Galileo, whom he saw as a usurper of the credit rightfully belonging to the Dutch engineer and scientist Simon Stevin (1548-1620). Bosscha’s extreme nationalistic arguments are analyzed in this paper.</p> Albert Van Helden Eileen Reeves Huib Zuidervaart Copyright (c) 2023 Albert Van Helden, Eileen Reeves, Huib Zuidervaart 2023-11-10 2023-11-10 20 2 91 110 10.57617/gal-12 Owen Gingerich (1930-2023): astronomer, historian, metaphysician <p>Obituary in memory of Owen Gingerich.</p> Miguel Á. Granada Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-10 2023-11-10 20 2 199 216 10.57617/gal-31